ASCII( American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

ASCII  abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard (the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the name US-ASCII). ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters.

ASCII was developed from telegraph code. Its first commercial use was as a seven-bit teleprinter code promoted by Bell data services. Work on the ASCII standard began on October 6, 1960, with the first meeting of the American Standards Association’s (ASA) (now the American National Standards Institute or ANSI) X3.2 subcommittee. The first edition of the standard was published in 1963, underwent a major revision during 1967, and experienced its most recent update during 1986. Compared to earlier telegraph codes, the proposed Bell code and ASCII were both ordered for more convenient sorting (i.e., alphabetization) of lists, and added features for devices other than teleprinters.

Originally based on the English alphabet, ASCII encodes 128 specified characters into seven-bit integers as shown by the ASCII chart above. The characters encoded are numbers 0 to 9, lowercase letters a to z, uppercase letters A to Z, basic punctuation symbols, control codes that originated with Teletype machines, and a space. For example, lowercase j would become binary 1101010 and decimal 106. ASCII includes definitions for 128 characters: 33 are non-printing control characters (many now obsolete) that affect how text and space are processed and 95 printable characters, including the space (which is considered an invisible graphic).

A June 1992 RFC and the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority registry of character sets recognize the following case-insensitive aliases for ASCII as suitable for use on the Internet: ANSI_X3.4-1968  (canonical name), iso-ir-6, ANSI_X3.4-1986, ISO_646.irv:1991, ASCII, ISO646-US, US-ASCII (preferred MIME name), us, IBM367, cp367, and csASCII.

Of these, the IANA encourages use of the name “US-ASCII” for Internet uses of ASCII (even if it is a redundant acronym, but the US is needed because of regular confusion of the ASCII term with other 8 bit based character encoding schemes such as Extended ASCII or UTF-8 for example). One often finds this in the optional “charset” parameter in the Content-Type header of some MIME messages, in the equivalent “meta” element of some HTML documents, and in the encoding declaration part of the prologue of some XML documents.





What is JavaScript?
JavaScript, an object scripting language which is used in web pages along with markup language HTML. JavaScript is very popular and adopted universally by every web browser for its support which allows dynamic content to get execute in a webpage. JavaScript does not incorporate or abide by any HTML tags or rules. It is similar to stand-alone programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. As JavaScript got its success worldwide with its integration into the web browsers, the Microsoft has added the JavaScript technology to its own Browser Internet Explorer.

Uses and applications of JavaScript

An HTML page is a static one and without JavaScript it would be static still. JavaScript can make the website more interactive and user- friendliness of JavaScript helps easy navigation of the website and helps designers to guide the visitors with additional information or guide them through walkthroughs. Visual effects can also be achieved with JavaScript. JavaScript can be used effectively to create special effects like rollover for images.

JavaScript not only supports web pages but also supports external applications like PDF documents, running widgets, supporting for flash applications etc. JavaScript has emerged in web industry like a boom and if you look at the current web scenario there are no web technologies that are not using JavaScript. For example AJAX and JQuery, in that the AJAX – Asynchronous JavaScript and XML in which JavaScript plays a very important role and JQuery gives the library for predefined functions for adding animations and many dynamic features to the web pages. AJAX and JQuery are some of the current web trends in terms of Dynamic website design and development.

JavaScript stands unique as it brings out all the special functionalities in the client’s browser instead of the site’s server. The role of JavaScript can never be denied as JavaScript can act as both object oriented language and procedural language.



What actually Github is , well according to wikipedia:-
GitHub is a web-based Git or version control repository and Internet hosting service. It offers all of the distributed version control and source code management (SCM) functionality of Git as well as adding its own features. It provides access control and several collaboration features such as bug tracking, feature requests, task management, and wikis for every project.
GitHub offers both plans for private and free repositories on the same account which are commonly used to host open-source software projects.

To understand GitHub, you must first have an understanding of Git. Git is an open-source version control system that was started by Linus Trovalds(Creator of Linux).
Git is easy to learn and has a tiny footprint with lightning fast performance. It outclasses SCM tools like Subversion, CVS, Perforce, and Clear Case with features like cheap local branching, convenient staging areas, and multiple workflows.